Properties of Calcium Chloride
- HYGROSCOPIC: Absorbs Moisture from the Air
- DELIQUESCENT: Dissolves in Absorbed Moisture and the Resultant Solution Resists EvaporatioN
- SOLUTION FREEZES AT LOW TEMPERATURES: -59°F (-50.5°C)
- EXOTHERMIC HEAT OF SOLUTION: Heat is Evolved as Product Dissolves
- HIGH DENSITY SOLUTIONS: Water Weighs 8.3lbs./gal., 25% and 40%
CaCl₂ Solutions Weigh 10.3 lbs./gal. and 11.7 lbs./gal., Respectively
- REACTIVE SOURCE OF CALCIUM CHLORIDE OR CHLORIDE ION: These Ions are Useful in a Variety of Chemical Processes
Calcium chloride has numerous physical and chemical characteristics which enable it to be used in a wide range of applications. The above six properties are the most notable of these characteristics and account for calcium chloride’s use in the following industries:
- PETROLEUM AND PETROTECHNICAL
- CEMENT, CONCRETE, AND GYPSUM
- METAL PROCESSING AND MINING
- CONSTRUCTION AND AGRICULTURAL
- WASTEWATER TREATMENT
- NON-MUNICIPAL DUST ABATEMENT
PETROLEUM AND PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRY
Calcium chloride is used as:
- Desiccant for hydrocarbons
- Oil well drilling chemical
Because of its highly hygroscopic properties, calcium chloride is used to dry (remove moisture) a wide variety of gaseous and liquid organic products.
During oil well drilling, calcium chloride solutions are used in an assortment of applications because of their solid-free, high density characteristics.
Desiccant for hydrocarbons, calcium chloride:
- Eliminates regeneration requirements
- Simplifies design and operation
- Reduces installation and operational costs
Compared to other desiccants, calcium chloride is relatively inexpensive. Thus it is economically practical to discard the effluent brine from the absorber, eliminating the need for regeneration equipment. This simplifies the design and operation of the system, resulting in reduced installation and operational costs.
IN THE ELECTROLYTIC PRODUCTION OF SODIUM AND MAGNESIUM, CALCIUM CHLORIDE:
- LOWERS THE MELTING POINT OF THE MOLTEN SALT BATHS
- REDUCES ENERGY REQUIREMENTS
Molten baths of calcium chloride and sodium chloride or magnesium chloride undergo electrolysis to form metallic sodium and magnesium.
The calcium chloride is used to lower the melting point of the molten salt bath. Less energy is required to maintain these baths in a molten state, resulting in substantial savings in operating costs.
IN THE PRODUCTION OF PIG-IRON, CALCIUM CHLORIDE:
- REMOVES ALKALI
- PREVENTS SCAFFOLDING
- PROVIDES SMOOTHER OPERATIONS
Calcium chloride is added, in amounts ranging from 400 to 1,600 lbs. per cast to blast furnaces to remove troublesome alkali. This prevents the buildup of alkaline scale or scaffolding in the furnace, thus providing smoother operations.
IN THE FREEZE-PROOFING AND THAWING OF COOL AND VARIOUS ORES, CALCIUM CHLORIDE:
- DECREASES UNLOADING TIME
- REDUCES COST
- REDUCES UNLOADING DAMAGE
- RESULTS IN A LONGER, LOWER MAINTENANCE LIFE FOR THE RAIL CARS
Calcium chloride’s ability to melt ice at sub-zero temperatures makes it an excellent freeze conditioning and thawing agent. When properly used, it decreases unloading time, thus reducing the cost associated with labor and demurrage. Also, because it loosens the coal without unnecessary heating or shaking, it reduces the amount of unloading damage caused by car shakers and thaw sheds. This results in a longer, lower maintenance life for the cars.
METAL PROCESSING AND MINING INDUSTRIES
CALCIUM CHLORIDE IS USED IN:
- FREEZE-PROOFING AND THAWING COAL AND VARIOUS ORES
- PRODUCTION OF PIG-IRON
- ELECTROLYTIC PRODUCTION OF SODIUM AND MAGNESIUM
- MANUFACTURE OF BRATTICE CLOTH
- PRODUCTION OF CALCIUM ALLOYS
- RECOVERY OF TUNGSTEN FROM SCRAP TUNGSTATE
AS AN ARIDIZING AGENT FOR GYPSUM
- LOWERS WATER DEMAND
- PERMITS HIGHER DENSITIES
- RESULTS IN HIGHER STRENGTH
Calcium chloride used as an aridizing agent in the manufacture of gypsum lowers the consistency (amount of water required to make a paste). This reduction in water demand allows the various end products (i.e. plaster of paris, wall plaster, casts) to obtain higher densities which results in higher strengths.
ADMIXTURES FOR CONCRETE
CALCIUM CHLORIDE PROVIDES:
- FASTER SETTING
- EARLIER STRENGTH DEVELOPMENT
- INCREASED WORKABILITY
- REDUCED WATER REQUIREMENTS
- INCREASED DENSITY
Additions of 1 -2% calcium chlorides accelerate the set time of concrete, resulting in earlier strength development. It also increases the rate of flow of concrete (workability). Because less water can be used without loss of workability, the density of the concrete can be increased.
PORTLAND CEMENT ADDITIVE
- LOWERS ALKALI CONTENT
- ELIMINATES EXPANSIVE REACTIONS IN FINISHED CONCRETE
- REDUCES DETERIORATION
In the kiln, calcium chloride reacts with the alkali. The lower alkali Portland Cement will not undergo expansive reactions with the aggregates in the concrete. This will result in a reduction of the deterioration of the finished concrete structure.
CEMENT, CONCRETE, AND GYPSUM INDUSTRY
CALCIUM CHLORIDE IS USED AS:
- PORTLAND CEMENT ADDITIVE
- ADMIXTURES FOR CONCRETE
- ARIDIZING AGENT IN GYPSUM
Calcium chloride is a direct kiln additive in the manufacture of Portland Cement. It’s an important ingredient in set accelerators and water reducing admixtures for concrete. In manufacturing gypsum, it is used as an aridizing agent.
ADVANTAGES OF CALCIUM CHLORIDE BRINES ARE:
- REDUCED CONTACT TIME
- LESS BRINE REQUIRED
- GREATER ECONOMY OF INSTALLATION AND OPERATION
In refrigeration, the lower the brine temperature, the shorter the contact time required between brine and the various molds. Since most refrigeration systems are usually continuous operation, the shorter the contact time, the smaller the volume of brine required. This reduction in the size of the system results in greater economy of installation and operation. These benefits are the main reason why calcium chloride solutions, with their ability to resist freezing at low temperatures, are used.
RECOVERY OF TUNGSTEN AND PRODUCTION OF CALCIUM ALLOYS
CALCIUM CHLORIDE IS USED TO:
- PROVIDE AN INEXPENSIVE SOURCE OF CALCIUM ION
Scrap tungstates are leached with calcium chloride to produce calcium tungstate which is further processed into tungsten metal.
Calcium chloride is used as a flux and a raw material in the production of alloys of calcium and other various metals, such as aluminum, lithium, magnesium, and beryllium.
IN THE MANUFACTURE OF BRATTICE CLOTH, CALCIUM CHLORIDE:
- PROVIDES FLAME RESISTANCE
- REDUCES COST
Brattice cloth is used for ventilation in mines. Normally, the least expensive brattice cloth, jute, is dipped in a calcium chloride solution to make it flame-resistant.
OIL WELL DRILLING
CALCIUM CHLORIDE IS USED IN:
- COMPLETION FLUIDS
- DRILLING FLUIDS
- WORKOVER FLUIDS
- CONCRETE ACCELERATOR
Calcium Chloride is incorporated into drilling muds to obtain the desired consistency, increase its density and to stabilize shale formation. Liquid is used as a completion and packer fluid to seal well casings and displace drilling mud. Additionally, it is used in well work overs and as a packer fluid. During the cementing of oil wells, calcium chloride is added to increase the rate of set.
WASTE TREATMENT INDUSTRY
CALCIUM CHLORIDE IN:
- FLOTATION OF OILY WASTES
- PRECIPITATION OF VARIOUS INORGANICS
Wastewater treatment is an area where calcium chloride has a variety of applications in assisting industries and municipalities in complying with pollution control requirements. Disposal of oily wastes presents a problem to the petroleum, metal working, laundry, textile, and food processing industries. The addition of calcium chloride to these waste streams causes the oil droplets to float to the surface where they can be removed by skimming. When calcium chloride is made to wastewater containing contaminants, such as fluorides, silicates, phosphates, sulfates, and various heavy metals, it reacts with the contaminants to form highly insoluble salts, which settle and are removed.
CALCIUM CHLORIDE IS USED BY:
- FRUIT AND VEGETABLE CANNERS AND PROCESSORS
- INCREASES FIRMNESS OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
- PREVENT BREAKUP DURING PROCESSING AND COOKING
- CHEESE MANUFACTURERS
- HELP COAGULATE THE CURDS
- INCREASE FIRMNESS
- REPLACE LOST CALCIUM
- BOTTLING INDUSTRY
- REDUCE SODIUM ALKALINITY
- INSURE UNIFORM TASTE
Canners and processors use calcium chloride to increase the firmness of fruits and vegetables to prevent breakup during processing and cooking. Apples, bananas, cherries, carrots, lima beans, olives, peppers, pickles, potatoes, and tomatoes are among the produce thus firmed.
At the present time, only cherry and olive briners are allowed to use a non food-grade calcium chloride.
In cheese manufacturing, food-grade calcium chloride is added to pasteurized skimmed milk to help coagulate the curds and increase firmness. The calcium chloride also replaces calcium chloride.
The bottling industry, namely soft drinks and beer, use food-grade calcium chloride to remove sodium alkalinity from water used in their formulations. The water is then remineralized to the desired levels. This operation insures uniform taste regardless of processing location.
AGRICULTURAL AND CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY
CALCIUM CHLORIDE IS USED IN TIRE WEIGHTING TO:
- IMPROVE TRACTION
- INCREASE PUSHING AND PULLING CAPABILITES
- PREVENT FRONT WHEELS FROM LIFTING
- REDUCE BOUNCE
- INCREASE TIRE LIFE
- PROVIDE PROTECTION FROM FREEZING
Tire weighting of payloaders, bulldozers, grades, and tractors with calcium chloride (29% solution) provides these vehicles with several advantages. First, it improves traction allowing greater pushing and pulling capabilities. It also helps to prevent the lifting of the front or rear wheels when stopping, accelerating, loading, and unloading. At faster speeds it helps reduce bounce, which results in less wear and tear on sidewalls and slower tread wear.
Calcium chloride solutions also provide more adequate protection from freezing, down to -59°F.
THE USE OF CALCIUM CHLORIDE IN THE MANUFACTURE OF FLOURESCENT LIGHTS AND TV SCREENS RESULTS IN:
- LOWER METALLIC ION IMPURITIES
- GREATER BRIGHTNESS
Calcium chloride is used as a raw material in the production of high purity calcium carbonate, which in turn, is used to manufacture phosphors (material used to coat the inside of fluorescent lamps).These phosphors are low in metal ions. This insures greater brightness in the finished products (fluorescent lights, television screens, electronic video games, and others).
NON-MUNICIPAL DUST CONTROL APPLICATIONS
- MINE HAUL ROADS
- LOGGING ROADS
- DISTRIBUTOR SALES
- PRIVATE ROADS
- PARKING LOTS
- TENNIS COURTS
Dust, regardless if it’s airborne as a result of a 100-ton truck pounding down a road or a sneaker sliding on a clay tennis court, is a nuisance and a deleterious loss of material from an unpaved surface. Calcium chloride binds these dust particles to the surface, creating a smooth, compacted, dust-free surface.
IN CORRUGATED BOARD, CALCIUM CHLORIDE:
- IMPROVES STOCK DRAINAGE
- INCREASES PRODUCTION
Calcium chloride’s major utilization in the paper industry is in the production of nine-point corrugating media, which is used in the production of corrugated board. Calcium chloride improves stock drainage, thereby increasing production through paper machine speed-up or reduction in wet-end brakes.
IN SUSPENSION POLYMERIZATION, CALCIUM CHLORIDE:
- PREVENTS ORGANIC PARTICLES FROM COALESCING
- CONTROLS THE SIZE OF THE POLYMER PARTICLES
Calcium chloride is used as a suspending agent in the suspension polymerization of various plastics. Because the particles are suspended in the dense brine, they do not settle to the bottom of the reactor and conglomerate into a large single mass.
OTHER INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS
- GEL DEPRESSANT
- CATTLE FEED SUPPLEMENT
- CALCIUM SOURCE
- POROSITY REDUCER
- PRECIPITATING AGENT
- PRECIPITATING AGENT
- HEAT TREATING SALTS
- HARDEN SPECIALTY STEELS
- HIGHWAY SAFETY
- CRASH BARRIERS
- INORGANIC CHEMICALS
- PRODUCTION OF CALCIUM SALTS
- MEDICAL SUPPLIES
- COLD PACK DRESSING
- HOT PACK COMPRESS
- FREEZE POINT DEPRESSANT
- EXOTHERMIC HEAT OF SOLUTION
- PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMICALS
- SOURCE OF CALCIUM
- SOIL SOLIDIFICATION
- CHEMICAL REACTANT
- SOLAR HEAT STORAGE
- HEAT STORAGE MEDIUM